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the vault

2 contemporary dutch painters
Nice gallery of two Dutch artists: oilpainting, watercolor's and drawings. Worth a visit.

eggen logo

Dutch landscapes and other
free work of the
Dutch painter, illustrator
Piet Eggen

photographs from the Netherlands
Gallery of the Netherlands.
Click the picture to visit this growing database of pictures of Dutch landscapes, townviews, mill's and rivers.
(Amateur) photographers daily provide this database of new photographs from all over the country. If you want to have your personal photo of any place in the Netherlands added to this database, just feel free to contact me

 

history

Submenu of this history-page
(Use the 'Back' button of your browser to return to this menu)

This is the SUBMENU of the History-page.You will find a similar submenu on all main pages of the CarPark site.
The MAIN-MENU can be found at the top of all pages of the site: Index, Intro, Archives, History, Genealogy, Language, Sources and the WareHouse.

Furthermore you'll find some search- and translation tools at the top of each page.The language tool will allow you to translate Dutch words into English.
Search this site gives you the opportunity to search the complete CarPark site for any word

All EXTERNAL links (links to other sites than the CarPark) will be opened in a new window.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 


 

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A very educated source of links and information on early- and late medieval history can be found on the excellent Internet Medieval Sourcebook site and the Internet Modern History Sourcebook of the Fordham University Center for Medieval Studies. You could also visit, for the same purpose, the rich and wonderful Mostly Medieval -Exploring the Middle Ages-site. The World of History at KMLA: the Netherland is a very good, clearly structured site as well, shockfull of resources and with a load of  informative maps.
Persons, researchers who want professional help for historical and/or genealogical research, basic or extensive look-ups in (specialized)  libraries or archives should definitely visit the  'Dutch Archives historical research bureau'. This excellent, professional site is in Dutch and English. The leader of this bureau -situated in Leiden- is highly qualified: visit the site to get an idea!
Don't forget the wonderful source of old maps to be found at:
The Atlas of Mutual Heritage website
Here you can search for maps, drawings, prints and paintings of locations related to the Dutch East India Company (Verenigde Oost-Indische Compagnie, VOC) and the West-Indische Compagnie (WIC)
Also in the city of Leiden the University of Leiden is maintaining a fine website about the History of International Migration, offering a series of educated articles and good references and booklists to this subject. For those among you who like art, modern, old and/or primitive, I can highly recommend the wonderful Marc Hardens Artchive site. You can have a great look for instance at some works of Jeroen Bosch, Pieter Breughel, Vermeer and other Dutch painters. The 'Web Gallery of Art' and the 'Art Cyclopedia' site are of similar quality. These three sites are a great source for lovers of -especially- 16th and 17th century paintings. For good, educated books about New Netherland go to the 'Good books about New Netherland' link below in the New Netherland submenu. The titles are kindely provided by Peter R.Christoph.
To learn more about voyages and discovery's all over the world go to the Discoverers Web website. To learn more about Dutch coins, weights, and Measurements, go to the ' Coins, Weights, and Measurements mentioned in Dutch Records' website or go to the Old Dutch Measures page . For a good insight into the Amsterdam staplemarket in the 16th century, go to the " Merchants from the Southern Netherlands and the rise of the Amsterdam staplemarket" (1578-1630)' site. (alternative site)
To read the book 'Voyages from Holland to America', by David Pietersz. de Vries (1593-1655) go to the site of the Goettinger Digitalisierungs Zentrum. The pages do load slowly, but it is worth waiting! (There is, however, the possibility to download some specific parts of the document as a PDF file)!
(You can also choose to visit my vault to download these files from there. You can download there the complete book but it will take some dl-time!)
Finding any old village, hamlet or town on 17th century maps will be a piece of cake by using the magnificent 'Blaeu Atlas' site from the University of California. I haven't found a better site yet!
To get a solid idea about the development of the various states of Europe from the Romans till now, do visit the Periodical Historical Atlas fo Europe: a site, depicting with accuracy the States of this continent every first day of each centennial year from AD 1 to AD 2000, designed and drawn by Christos Nüssli! A long but educated article by professor J.E. Thorold Rogers is "The Story of Holland", starting in the early day's. Dont' forget to take a Virtual tour of New Netherland, brought to you by the great people of the New Netherland Project! As regards contents and design a highly recommended place to go! To learn all about Calendar's, calendar-reforms etc. simply go to the Calendar Zone, or download any of the Calendar app's, listed below. Anything, related to the Calendar-switch -especially in the Low Countries- can be at the great Perpetual Calendar -site of Toke Nørby!
Anyone who wants to learn all about Christian Church History has to visit the excellent site called "History of the Christian Church" written by Philip Schaff. If you just want to learn more about the Reformation period, go to the The Reformation Guide!
An immense collection of highly detailed historical maps all over the world can be found in the David Rumsey Map Collection. This site however should only be visited if your browser is up-to-date and your computer loaded with enough RAM!
An great source of highly detailed little maps of the Netherlands in 1773 can be found at the beautiful site of Hans Wazamar: he offers a clickable map of the Netherlands, based on a historic Pocket-Atlas, the "Nieuwe Geographische Reise- en Zak-Atlas from Jan Christiaan Sepp, bookseller at Amsterdam.

To find out which wars have been fought through the ages go to
'The War Scholar'. This is a military history timeline of war and conflict across the globe, 3000 B.C. to A.D. 1999!
To locate all Dutch municipalities of 1865 easily, go to Great Dutch maps with all Dutch municipalities of 1865
Another nicely designed and very educated site I can recommend is the site of the 'The Medici Archive Project'. A beautiful site about maps of all over the world with excellent descriptions can be found at Leen Helminks site
An excelllent, detailed, illustrated, summary of the development of the Low Countries (present-day Belgium and the Netherlands) starting in the 14th century, can be found at the Historical Site of Gerard von Hebel. (At this moment under construction but worth waiting for.)
For those among you, interested in the 17th century diplomacy (mainly England-the Netherlands) go to the website containing the William Blathwayt Papers.
To find detailled (historical) information about any country of your choice, please visit the Country Studies site of the Federal Research Division of the Library of Congress. A wealth of historical texts can be found at the Hanover Historical Texts Project site
Mind the Archive CD Books site. The Archive CD Books Project exists to make reproductions of old books, documents and maps available on CD to genealogists and historians, and to co-operate with libraries, museums and record offices in providing money to renovate old books in their collection, and to donate books to their collections, where they will be preserved for future generations.
A nice overview over the history of Northern America can be found at the Colonial America website.
Anyone, interested in the Dutch involvement in the Baltic trade, from the early Hanseatic times up to the Peace of Muenster, 1648. Read the web-version of the Masters' Thesis of Jouko Tossavainen, Department of History, University of JYVÄSKYLÄ, Finland: Dutch forest products' trade in the Baltic from the Late Middle Ages to the Peace of Munster in 1648.
Finally, for Jewish Central European history, documentation, info, photography, please don't forget to visit 'Centropa'.

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New Netherland (and other American)stuff
wgc
The Place To Start!
The New Netherland Project from the
New Netherland Institute

The New York History Net

Castel Clinton/Garden history

The Olive Tree Genealogy
(lots of historical resources)
Charter of the Dutch West India Company : 1621
A History of the City of Brooklyn by Henry Stiles. Online version in three Volumes

Hudsonriver.com. Hudson River History Tour

Discoverers Web

Good books about New Netherland
American Forts. Eastern United States and Territories
Virtual tour of New Netherland
Coming of the Palatines
The World of Peter Stuyvesant
The Dutch-American Connection
Digital History. Primary source documents
New Netherland museum

New Netherland Notables

New Amsterdam & Newton (showing some very nice maps)
History of the Flatts
Animated map New York State
Dutchmen in the Civil War
New York and its origins. Legend and Reality

Essay on Lambert Huybertsen Moll

About Martin van Buren

New Netherland and New Sweden in North America
The Finnish Language on the Delaware
Civil War Resources
The first Finlanders in the New World
The Beaver in New Netherland
The Failure of West India Company Farming on the Island of Manhattan
New Amsterdam & Newton (showing some very nice maps)
Role of the Dutch in the Iroquois Wars
Beads and Manhattan island
The MacMillan Company, New York, 1904
(slow loading site)

The United States and the Netherlands

The Schenectady Massacre

Rights and Privileges of Patroons
Robert.L.Billards' Site

The Hudson River Maritime Museum

The English take control of the Hudson Valley

Year Book of the Holland Society of New York,1916. Domine Selyns' Records
Civilizations under Siege. The European Conquest of the Americas

Rensselaerswyck

Kinderhook History

Dutch raid on Ferryland 1673

The Picture Collection of the New York Library

Making of America: 'Laws and ordinances of New Netherland, 1638-1674' by E. B. O'Callaghan

County Formation New York 1683-1915. Animated Map

Early Europeans in the Hudson Valley

Germans in New Netherland

The Gilder Lehrman Institute of American History
Catholic Encyclopedia: Hollanders in the United States

The Swedish Colonial Society

America's First Families

New Netherland and Beyond

The Holland Society of New York

Zawaanendaal (Swanendael)

The Hudson River Maritime Museum

The American Fulkerson Homepage
The Virtual New Amsterdam Project, 1660
(Great map! Visit also the link 'Occupants of New Amsterdam'
)

Draft of privetizing colonization (PDF)[Clicking this link will cause your browser to download a PDF file. To view a PDF document you will need to have 'Acrobat Reader' installed.Click here for more information about the program]

the vault .

The Dutch-English relations through history

Muslims in Early America

State of Delaware; a brief history
Dutch and Swedes in Delaware
"The Unfinished Nation" A concise history of the American people, by Alan Brinkley
Reformed Church in America Archives
History of the USA.Converted from Henry William Elson's
History of the United States of America

The Swedish Colonial Society

A Hudson River Portfolio. Nicely designed site from the New York Public Library
American History: Primary Sources
Anneke Jans Bogardus and her farm

The online "A History of the City of Brooklyn" by Henri Stiles

The Dutch and the Delaware. A Short History

The American Colonist's Library
Primary Source Documents Pertaining to Early American History

Who was Henry Hudson anyway? And what happened to him?

The French, Dutch and English in North America

Occupants of New Amsterdam, 1660

Inventory of the James Riker Papers, 1660-1989

New Netherlandand Beyond

Collections of Genealogy and History

The first voyages to America

New York.  A Sketch of the City’s Social, Political, and Commercial Progress from the First Dutch Settlement to Recent Times. By Theodore Roosevelt

The Papers of John Jay
The Papers of John Jay, 1745-1829 is an image database and indexing tool comprised of thousands of pages scanned from photocopies of original documents gathered by the John Jay publication project staff during the 1960s and 1970s under the direction of the late Professor Richard B. Morris.  These files were maintained as sources for items to be used in a planned four-volume letterpress series entitled The Selected Unpublished Papers of John Jay.

New York Urban Life: history links

Rensselaerwyck Settlers,1630-1658

Changes In Names Of New York State Towns

Before the Needles. Executions in the US. Find your criminal ancestor(s)!

Forgotten NewYork

From Revolution to Reconstruction
A Hypertext on American History from the colonial period until Modern Times
Department of Humanities Computing, University of Groningen, The Netherlands

Ramapough Mountain People, “The Jackson Whites” A Pathfinder and Annotated Bibliography by: Randy D. Ralph, MLIS, Ph.D. (Core family's of the Jackson Whites are De Freece, De Groat, Van Donck, Claessen and Mann families)

The Jacob Leisler's Paper Project!

History of Dutch Settlements in West Michigan

Dutchmen in the American Civil War


 

   
 

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Black Dutch, Black Belgians and Pennsylvania Dutch nsylvania dutch

Black Dutch

The history of Schenectady County

This and that genealogy tips on Black Dutch and Black Irish, Melungeons, Moravians and Pennsylvania Dutch
Pennsylvania Dutch Are Of German Heritage, Not Dutch
"Gypsies" in the United States
The Black Dutchmen. Dutch Africans from Java
Unique Peoples and Cultures
   
   
 

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The Holland Land Company
Information, descriptions

Archives, resources, bibliography and maps

Holland Land Company. Short description from the AllRefer Encyclopedia
The Holland Land Company. Selected Resources
Biography of Theophilus Cazenove (1714 to 1811)
Map of Morris' Purchase or West Geneseo in the State of New Yorkm 1804. (David Rumsey.com)
(long loading time)
Trade New York. Cazenove and the Holland Land Company
Holland Land Co. Early Land Purchases in Western New York
The Holland Land Company and
Joseph Ellicott
The Holland Land Office Museum, Batavia, NY
Robert Morris
Guide to the Holland Land Company Records,
1802-1863
Historian's Page Alabama, NY.
Genesee County& General information
Map of the Western Part of the State of New York Including the Holland Purchase, Exhibiting its Division into Counties and Towns

The Ogden Family Papers

The Village of Buffalo -1801 to 1832

Paul.D.Evans, "Holland Land Company"
Karen E. Livsey "Western New York Land Transactions, 1825-1835"

(Books)
Hollanders who helped build America
Historical Area Markers in New York State
   
 

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Dutch history
General
Provinces and regions

The Dutch Republic in the early seventeenth century (Part of the excellent scholarly 'Introduction to Seventeenth Century European History", by J.P. Sommerville

Historical Text Archive: E-Book: The Rise of the Dutch Republic. A History,
by John Kothrop Motley

The Dutch Republic.
By the Rev. G.Edmundson,M.A.

Good books on Dutch history

Holland, by James E. Thorold Rogers. Ebook, providing a fine overview of the Eighty Year War

History of the Netherlands

The Dutch Revolt.  Revolution and civil war in the Low Countries
 (ca. 1550 - ca. 1650)(Click 'Sources')

Provinces of the Netherlands: (Art)history Online Reference and Guide

History of the province of Flevoland: the twelfth and youngest Dutch province

The Counts of Holland

Draining the Haarlemmermeer

History of the province and town of Groningen

History of Wieringen

Geschierdenis: history of the isle of Schiermonnikoog (with a good article on the Dutch 'Wadden-isles')

Nice clickable map of the Dutch provinces in 1300 (Dutch, but recommended)

Historical Society of Drenthe

 

List of books on WIC and the Atlantic area
 

Mediaeval science page

Dutch-Portuguese Colonial History

The Netherlands History

Our kinsfolk in the Netherlands. Always closely associated with Britain
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Dutch Courage History Page
Province of Friesland
Dutch Republic History Site (very good resource of books, publications on Dutch History. If your browser doesn't support the hierarchical menu, scroll down to the bottom of the page and click the message there.)

Frisia: history of the past

About Frisian history, culture and language(s)

Friesland History

History of Guilds (Sing. 'Gilde' in Dutch)
Historical Center Leeuwarden (Friesland)
The World of History at the KMLA site: history of warfare, the Netherlands
Lex Frisonium, the Frisian book of law


Spanish History Index

History of the Low Countries. Good overview

Book Review: The Dutch Revolt

Low Countries till 1579

The Low countries History Museum

 
Wikipedia Encyclopedia: The Dutch Golden Age
Towns and villages

The Dutch Declaration of Independence, 1581

The Southern Netherlands, 1815 - 1830

The Spanish-Netherlands 1600-1713

Treaty of Utrecht 1713

The Dutch Miracle

Fires,floods and epidemics 1500-2000

Dutch Geographical society

Development of the Low Countries

"Merchants from the Southern Netherlands and the rise of the Amsterdam staplemarket (1578-1630)". Summary of this dissertation and downloadable database

The Netherlands@Everything2.com. Things well worth knowing about the Netherlands.

Situating the Low Countries

Historical Atlas of the Netherlands

History of the village of 'de Rijp', Noord Holland

History of the town of Groningen (good text)

Old Dutch Cities

History of Leeuwarden, Friesland

Rotterdam history in a nutshell

Zaandam history

The village of Andel, prov. of Noord Brabant

History of the centre of the town of Groningen

Oosterwijtwerd, village in the province of Groningen

A trip into the past...The unofficial Herwijnen Homepage (Herwijnen, a small village in the province of Gelderland)

Short History of Amsterdam

A Glossary of European Noble, Princely, Royal, and Imperial Titles.

The expedition of the vessels, 'Hoop', 'Liefde', 'Geloof', 'Trouw' and 'Blijde Boodschap' of 1598

The administrations of John de Witt and William of Orange (1651-88)(tip)

 
 
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Specific
Amsterdam

The Dutch Water Line

Castles in the Netherlands

Productions of Globes in the Low Countries

Castles in the Netherlands, Belgium and Luxembourg [Site's in Dutch]

Amsterdam Heritage 1672-1795

The History of Amsterdam

Short history of Amsterdam and the Netherlands

De Oude Kerk, Amsterdam- Tombs on the Internet. Tracing the lives of citizens of Amsterdam covered by gravestones in Amsterdam's Old Church.
Graven op Internet. Same database of the Tombs in the Oude Kerk, but this one is in Dutch. Only -great- advantage: the page is loading a lot quicker!

Dutch History Index (online resources, books, etext's; all neatly arranged by topic)

Dolmens in the Netherlands

Fortress Grave in the province of Noord-Brabant

Dutch Merchants of Amsterdam. Board game! (Amsterdam in 1600 was a booming town for trade and exploration. Dutch merchants traveled the world looking for valuable goods. The game features a special auction clock to support the use of the traditional Dutch auction.)
The Hanseatic League (good overview)
Dutch communities in Europe
Dutch forest products' trade in the Baltic from the Late Middle Ages to the Peace of Munster in 1648.
Dutch community in St.Petersburg, Russia, in the 17th century

Hist. of the Netherlands.Primary documents

The Danish War 1626-1629

TIMS. Links to mills in the Netherlands

Dutch Castles archive

List of Witches and Witchtrials in Belgium, Luxembourg and the Netherlands

 
Towns and textiles (The Symbiosis of Towns and Textiles: Urban Institutions and the Changing Fortunes of Cloth Manufacturing in the Low Countries and England, 1280 - 1570 )
Immigrants
[For more migration stuff, go to my
'Migrations-page']

DRY DRUNK: The Culture of Tobacco in 17th- and 18th-century Europe

The history of mazes and labyrinths in the Netherlands

Dutch and Walloon immigrants in Cambridgeshire (Great Britain)

The Scots in 17th century Holland

A Haven for Refugees, the Dutch Republic

Nationaal Archief. Beeldbank. 500.000 photographs from ALL over the Netherlands taken between 1880-1990. [Site is in Dutch, but it's ever so simple to use and play with]

Guilds, guildsmen and technological innovation in ealy modern Europe: the case of the Dutch Republic, by Karel Davids
This file can also be downloaded
from the Vault directly
the vault

 
 

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Belgian and Luxembourg history
General
Towns and villages
A Concise Description of Flanders
Ename, East Flanders, Medieval archeology
History of Belgium
The history of Antwerp
The history of East Belgium
History of Ieper (Ypres)
History of Belgium after 1579
History of Liege
House of Orange
The history of Ghent
History of the Spanish Netherlands
History of a lot of cities in Belgium
Belgian Castles
History of Bruges
Burgundic period in Belgium
The history of Leuven
Mediaeval Belgium
History of the city of Mechelen (Mechlin)
The Spanish Netherlands
History of Namur
Heraldry in Belgium
History of Ieper (Ypres)
Luxembourg Sovereigns since 963
 
Luxembourg history and culture
 
History and culture of Belgium
 
The World of History at KMLA: Belgium. Great site
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Situating the Low Countries
Provinces and Regions
History of religion in Luxembourg
Flanders history (Catholic Encyclopedia)
The Duchy of Bouillon
 

Life in Flanders (18th/19th.cent.)

Summary of the Lost Peatlands north of Antwerp

   
Specific
Short survey of Walloon and Flemish Brabant
The Ostend East-India Company
History of Flanders
Monarchies of Europe. The Belgian Royal Family
Short introduction to Flanders history (Columbia Encyclopedia)
   
 

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East Frisia, Germany
eastfrisia east-frisia ostfriesland ost friesland ostfriesen, ost-friesland ostfriesland
East Frisia, Germany
All Germany

Chronological history of Ostfriesland

Saterland, Germany. Short overview

East Frisia: short geographical, political description

Ostfriesen History

germany hq
All you want to know about Germany, including history.

German history resources

 

History of Germany, resources

History of Germany;Primary Documents

The Thomas Scharnowsky Homepage

Areas of German settlement in Europe

Schleswig-Holstein Immigrants in New Amsterdam/New York, 1636 - 1667

North Friesland

Land of Cleves and their possessions in the Netherlands

List of places in the Land of Cleves, Germ. in various spellings

   
 
Help to find old -disappeared or renamed- German places (in Central- and Eastern Europe)
 
The JewishGen Shtetlseeker (Central Europe) A VERY good site to look for old German towns and villages!
 
Place-names in Europe
 
GEOServ. German townlocator by email
 
The FEEFHS-Maproom. [Mainly old, detailed maps, but also a source for researching old German places]
 
Former German Territories
   
 

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Huguenots

Huguenots in the Netherlands

The Ferry Family. The European historical background of a Huguenotte family. Very interesting!

Deutsche Hugenotten Gesellschaft e.V. Historical and genealogical info with an accent on the Huguenottes who fled to Germany

The Huguenot Webring

The National Huguenot Society

Huguenot Settlers in America

History of the Huguenot Immigration to America (Book, 2 volumes)

The Refuge Huguenot Database

Huguenots in the Uckermark (Brandenburg, Germany)

The Huguenots of Lisburn (Ireland)

Huguenot History

Experiences of the French Huguenots in America - The King's Refugees
Investigations into the Lives and Fortunes of Exiles who Fled to America during the Reign of Louis XIV when he Promulgated the Revocation of the Edict of Nantes in 1685
Persecutions of the Huguenots and Their Experiences in the New Western World
Exhaustive Historical Researches.
By Colonel James Tompkins Watson

The Huguenots in South Africa

France during the Huguenot Wars

France during the Huguenot Wars

Description of the Huguenot Cross

Devon (UK) Huguenots

The Was of Religion in France

French Huguenot Refugees

French Refugees in Great Britain in the early 1700's

The Revocation of the Edict of Nantes, October 22, 1685
   
 

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Jews
The Netherlands and Belgium
Suriname & the Caribean area

Portuguese jews in Amsterdam

History Jewish Groningen

The historic Portuguese-Jewish cemetery in Ouderkerk aan de Amstel, The Netherlands

Jewish Hist. Museum

The Gerard Dou Synagogue in Amsterdam

Jewish Dutch Family Tree Collection

Jewish Cemetary Project (Netherland) Antilles

Jodensavanne Historical Timeline (Suriname)

History of the Jews in Suriname

(Jewish) history of Suriname

Jews in Suriname 2

Jews at Curacao

Jodensavanne site in Suriname

Jewish history, religion and culture

Dutch Sephardic Jewry in the age of Rembrandt and Spinoza

Jewish Amsterdam

The Beth Haim at Ouderkerk aan de Amstel

Jews from Leghorn in Suriname

Jewish history tour, Suriname

List of Carribean Jews

The Caribbean and Atlantic Jewish History

   
 
Rest of the world

Jewish Web Index

Digital monument to the Jewish Community in the Netherlands

Hebrew words in Dutch

Jews of Belgium

Jews of the Netherlands

Ashkenazi Amsterdam in the Eighteenth Century

Kulanu:All of us. Links of Jewish communities(history) all over the world

Center for Jewish History

American Jewish Historical Society

Centropa. Jewish heritage in Eastern and Central Europe

Jews of Germany

Heritage. Civilization and the Jews

   
   
Rest of Europe
 
 

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Europe
ORB: The Online Reference Book for Medieval Studies

Hundred Years' War 1337-1453

Historical overview Central Europe

WESS (Western European Studies Section): regional and historical resources!
ORB, the Online Reference Book For Medieval Studies [GREAT source of info!]

Interactive timeline Western Europe1300-1640
Germany: a country study
   
 

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Ferment of the Reformation:
Mystics, Renaissance, Northern (Christian) Humanism 
in the Low Lands and Europe

'In Praise of Folly" by Desiderius Erasmus

The Erasmus Text Project

'The Imitation of Christ' by Thomas a Kempis. Complete online version

Scholasticism and Mystycism

 

The Northern Renaissance and the background of the Reformation

The Brothers of the Common Life

Florens Radewijns. Catholic Encyclopedia

Thomas a Kempis. Catholic Encyclopedia

Thomas a Kempis, Priest, Monk and Writer

The Psalms, the Organ and Sweelinck
A concise description of Flanders:
Mystics & Writers
 

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Religion: Reformation and Catholicism
reformation in the netherlands: early period

 

General
Lutheranism
Ecclesiastical divisions of the Netherlands before and after 1559. Double click to open in a new window
About Martin Luther
Religion in the Northern Netherlands during the 80-Year War: graphic. Opens in a new window
Luther's 95 Theses
Theology/Doctrines. A very handsome, though colored, overview on a variety of religious denominations
Selected Works of Martin Luther, by the Wittenberg Project.
Liturgy of the Dutch Reformed Churches!
Lutheranism: the Catholic Encyclopedia
Church Order of the Reformed Dutch Church!
 
Sources Dutch Revolt and Reformation
 

Low Countries, 1555-1609

 
The Belgic (or Netherlands) Confession of Faith
 
The French Confession of Faith
 
The Westminster Confession of Faith (1646)
 
Continental European Protestantism
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The Reformation Guide, offering a wealth of links
Socianism
Peter Large's Church Page
Faustus Socinus
All the big shots of the Reformation
Socinianism: Catholic Encyclopedia
History of the Christian Church, by Schaff
 
The Protestant Reformation. Resources from the Internet Archive of Texts and documents
 
Select documents for the Reformation and the Revolt
 
Central Europe religiously (map)
Anabaptists and Mennonites
Jan Laski (aka Joannes a Lasco). Pan- European Reformer
Mennonites. Good overview
History and Theology of the Reformed Church
Great site!
Mennonites: Catholic Encyclopedia
Internet Modern History Sourcebook: Reformation
Mennonite congregation of Aalsmeer
The Wars of Religion in Europe
Bibliography of Anabaptist Materials (16th Century)
Antwerp in the Age of Reformation
Prussian Mennonite Genealogical Resources
The Dutch Bible Belt. Very interesting article about protestants,catholics and unchurchly groups in the Netherlands. It's a PDF file. The website is closed but I have put the document in my vault.
the vault .
About Anabaptists

A brief Mennonite History

Mennonite stories

The "States Bible" - the bible translation of 1637

Information about the Dutch 'Statenbijbel'

Dutch Reformed Timeline

Reformation and Modern Church History Timelines

A Mennonite Low German Dictionary

The Mennonite Churches in the Netherlands (Scroll)

Mennolink. Lots of links concerning the Mennonites

Foundations of the Faith, online exhibition. (Sixteenth-century European Reformers and their texts)

The Reformed Church in America: Historical Highlights

The Christian Reformed Church (1857) in America

The language of the West Siberian Mennonites. Very fine educated article about the history of the German- and Dutch Mennonites in Central-, Eastern Europe and South West Siberia. As well a very good explanation of the 'Plautdiitsch' language. (The file is in "Postcript plain text format": if your browser doesn't load the page, go to my Vault and download the pdf file: west siberian mennonites)

The Dutch Reformed Church in Sri Lanka

 
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The Walloon Church, Amsterdam
Arminius / Gomarus
Remonstrants- Counter Remonstrants

Etchings Walloon Church, Amsterdam

Reformed Online

Who was Arminius? (other server)
Jacob Arminius (c.1559-1609)

 
Arminian Index
 
Arminius, a study in the Dutch Reformation [Book]
Calvinism
Arminianism. The Wikipedia Encyclopdia
John Calvin: Institutes of the Christian religion
Armninianism
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There's also a 'Five Points of Calvinism' pdf-file to be found in:
vault

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Dutch Republic in 1648
states general territory spanish netherlands bisshopric of liege
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Famous  persons of the 16th-,17th-, 18th- and 19th century
in the Netherlands (click here for portrait -gallery)

Hugo Grotius

Hugo Grotius, 'miracle of Holland'

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Christiaan Huygens: A biographical sketch

Christiaan Huygens. The history of the magic lantern

Johan de Witt

Herbert H. Rowen, John de Witt : Statesman of the "True Freedom", Cambridge University Press; (February 6, 1986). ASIN: 0521303915

Hermann Boerhaave

List of people from the Dutch Golden Age

List of Dutch people through all centuries

Anna Maria van Schurman

Erasmus

Desiderius Erasmus.Catholic Encyclopedia

Rudolf Agricola Catholic Encyclopedia
Early Dutch Humanist

Wessel Gansfort. Cath. Encyclopedia

Anthonie Leeuwenhoek

Jacob Cats, humorist, poet, moralist and statesman

Justus Lipsius (Josse Lips).
Catholic Encyclopedia

Jan Swammerdam (1637-1680)

l'Écluse, Charles de [Carolus Clusius]

Simon Stevin

The Legend of Laurens Janszoon Koster

Dutch Emblems by Roemer Visscher
(Worth to take a look at!)

Historical Text Archive: E-Book: Life of John of Barneveld, 1609-23, by John Lothrop Motley

Johan van Oldenbarneveldt

Philips Galle 2

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Abel Tasman: New Zealand in history

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Nobility in the Netherlands, Belgium, Luxembourg and Europe
the Netherlands & Belgium
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....to be found in the
VAULT

 

 

Suriname / Brazil / Caribbean area

Netherland Antilles reading list

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The Sugar Trade in the West Indies and Brazil Between 1492 and 1700
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Dutch-Japanese contacts

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Yasuaki Kobashi

A miner in the deep and dark places: Guido Verbeck in Nagasaki, 1859-1869

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400 Years Japanes-Dutch relations

A World of Difference. The VOC and Japan's economic policy, 1640-1715
 
 

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south africa online
South Africa
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The Netherlands and South Africa from Past to Present
Southern African Military History Website
   
 

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The WIC, the Dutch West Indies Company

Prologue

DUTCH FIRST PRESENCE IN THE ATLANTIC AREA
Why did the Dutch wait till the last decades of the 16th century to explore the Atlantic? There was no real need for the Dutch to enter this area prior to 1600 - the Dutch already controlled the staple trade of salt, grain, herring and wood in Europe. The grain was imported from Scandinavia and the other East-Sea countries and was transported to other European nations. When they shipped it to Spain (even during the war!) and Portugal, they returned with shiploads of salt that they again exported to the Northern European countries: Amsterdam being the largest mart, emporium of staple goods.
Besides that the Dutch didn't have to explore the wide Atlantic for fishing-grounds, like the French and English did from the 15th century when they fished and explored the waters around Newfoundland. The Dutch however controlled the North Sea fishery since the 15th century.
What actually did cause the Republic to set sail for the Atlantic coasts, West-Africa, Brazil, the Caribbean region, and, later, after Hudson's visit of the Hudson in 1609, the Northern-American coastal area? More and more Dutch historians mention the fact that the European trade had reached a certain level of saturation. This trade had brought so much prosperity and money that the Dutch could (or had to) spread their wings and sail the Asian, African and American coasts.
The conquest of Antwerp in the Southern Netherlands by the Spanish in 1585 speeded up this process of Dutch interest for naval expansion: skilled laborers, scientists, artists and merchants fled to the cities in the Republic, especially Amsterdam and Middelburg. Since Antwerp had been the main distribution-center in North-West Europe for spices from the East like sugar, wood and other tropical products, the knowledge (navigation, cartography) and the existing trade-contacts now came into Dutch hands.
Sugar-trade with the Canary Islands, Madeira, Sao Tome and Brazil, and salt trade at the Cape Verdian Isles, as well as some Caribbean isles and the coastal area of Venezuela (Punta de Araya), spread the Dutch over the Atlantic Ocean. Already before 1600 , more than one hundred ships sailed for Punta de Araya - mostly ships from the Dutch West Frisian cities Hoorn and Enkhuizen.
Privateering was another highly important element that led the Dutch ships to the West-African, Brazilian coasts and the Caribbean. Their main goal was to fight the Spaniards and Portuguese by obstructing their silver and slave transports, so damaging their economy, and to get rich by simply robbing them. The French- and English pirates already had proven the profits of this system in the Caribbee.
As for New Netherland... Soon after Hudson's voyage and exploration of the river named after him, up to present-day Albany, many Dutch merchants cast their covetous eyes on these freshly discovered territories along the Hudson, Delaware and Connecticut rivers. As early as 1611 a group of Lutheranian merchants from Amsterdam, called the Van Tweenhuysen Compagnie, sent a ship, the St.Pieter to the Hudson. Other companies quickly followed, and in 1613 the Hans Claesz.Compagnie from Amsterdam, two other groups from the city of Hoorn, and another from the Admiralty from Amsterdam.
The rivalry was heated, off and on even violent, and by and by the competing merchants woke up to the fact that they had to cooperate, resulting in the founding of the Nieuw Nederland Compagnie in 1614. This company united the different merchants, and with a charter granted by the States General for a period of three years, starting January 1, 1635, they obtained the monopoly for the discovered territories. At the end of this period however, in October 1635, the States General rejected a prolongation of this charter; most probably due to slumbering plans for a West Indian Company.
So, after 1635 the rivalry and competition started again till finally, the first ship under command of the WIC (which was founded June 3, 1621) set sail for America on July 16, 1623. This was the Mackereel, that sailed from Texel July 16, 1623, together with the Witte Duif, for New Netherlands and Guyana respectively.

___________

 

THE WIC (West Indies Company
The WIC, West Indies Company (West-Indische Compagnie) was a trading company, shaped after the example of the Dutch VOC, East Indies Company, which started in 1602, with the goal to trade and found colonies in the Atlantic area outside of Europe. They received their charter from the States General, that reserved the 'right on shipping and trade' to this company. The WIC obtained the trading monopoly on the entire coast from the Americas, to Cape Magelhaes, and the African coast between the tropic of Cancer and the Cape of Good Hope, next to the control over the colonies. It is not far from reality though to mention that privateering was another main goal: as a matter of fact, in the first decades, the WIC was a military force, ‘instrument par excellence’ for the Dutch States-General in their struggle with Spain and Portugal. (The side effect of this was, that the WIC tended to base their organization financially a little too much on the flow of money resulting from privateering).


The company was divided in 5 Kamers (Chambers): Amsterdam, Zeeland, Maze, Noorderkwartier and Stad en Land (Groningen). The Chambers were under the general government of the so called Heren XIX (Heren = litt. Gentlemen; lords, masters, XIX=19). The Heren XIX consisted of 8 representatives from Amsterdam, 5 from Zeeland and 2 from Maze, Noorderkwartier and Stad en Lande each; the States General however had one important representative in this organization. Generally speaking we may assume that especially the Amsterdam Chamber was the most influential one with her 20 bewindvoerders; Kiliaen van Rensselaer was one of them.
(Maze by the way stands for the area north of Amsterdam, while Noorderkwartier stands for the northern part of Holland, with main harbors as Hoorn, Enkhuizen and Medemblik).


Due to miscalculations the WIC never came up to the high, profitable level of the Dutch VOC: especially the structure of the WIC, the commercial failure of the Dutch 'Brazil adventure’ (the "Nieuw Holland' colony from 1630-1654) and the conflicting interests of the Amsterdam shareholders weakened the Company: already in 1638 the WIC had to let go the trade-monopoly on Brazil and the Caribbean. Conquest and defense costs and shareholders consumed the lion’s share of the WIC money.
From the beginning the WIC and the States General were focussed on trade and quick profits: as for New Netherland, they did not fall in with the 'colonization' ideas from men like Kiliaen van Rensselaer, Samuel Godijn and Johannes de Laet from the Amsterdam Chamber. The main reason that small groups of colonists were sent to New Netherland actually was a pragmatic one -- in order to protect and legitimate Dutch territorial claim on the area only!


When the peace-treaty at Muenster was signed in 1648, which made an end to the war between Spain and the Republic and the Thirty Year War, the WIC quickly declined, until she was liquidated finally in 1674. But before that happened the activities already were narrowed down to slave, gold, sugar and ammunition trade mainly; a system in which Curacao played a main role. A new WIC was launched shortly after in 1675, but this time smaller, with less financial means and less bewindvoerders (directors, managers): only ten, this time. Until 1743 this WIC maintained part of the original monopolies: the trading of African slaves and products such as gold. After that the WIC was engaged solely in the administration of the remaining African and American oversea territories and fortresses until she was closed down in 1791 forever.

 

PRIVATEERING UNDER WIC COMMAND
The most profitable branch of the WIC organization was the' kaapvaart' (privateering). As explained in my previous short description of the WIC organization, the company had received the monopoly of trade and shipping on the whole Atlantic area. When the Dutch authorities gave this monopoly, battle was inevitable, because the Caribbean waters were considered by the Spaniards as Mare Clausum (closed sea). The "Heren XIX" had chosen the strategy of undermining the Spanish and Portuguese power by means of an intensive kaapvaart. The idea of kaapvaart wasn't new; the first kaperbrief or commissiebrief ( letter of consignment) had peviously been issued by Lodewijk van Nassau (brother of Willem van Oranje) to Captain Diderick Sonoy in 1568. The first two privateering squadrons under WIC command sailed out in 1624 under shippers Pieter Schouten and Hendrick Jacobsz. Kat. They conquered several enemy ships and the loot was considerable. Due to disappointing results of the privateering fleet of Captain Boudewijn Hendriksz., a fleet under command of captain Piet Heyn sailed to the Caribbee 1626 to assist him. Other names of known captains commanding privateering esquadrons are: Jacob Willekens, Cornelis Jol (aka Captain Houtebeen meaning Captain wooden leg),Jan Dircksz. Lam (sic: Lam= Lamb), Michiel Adriaenszoon de Ruyter (before he entered the navy), Willem Credo, Cornelis Gerrits, Pieter Hamers and Salomon Reynders.
Every ship sailing from Brazil, the Caribbee or any other Spanish/Portuguese colony was attacked, conquered and the cargo was shipped to Amsterdam or Middelburg. The silver and gold shipments from Peru and Bolivia, which were taken by the Dutch, did significant harm to the Spanish economy and the Spaniards needed that silver to finance their war against the Netherlands. That's why the Dutch government supported the WIC in this. In 1640, privateering under command of the WIC was stopped: the costs became too high, the losses too frequent, the profits too low. But, the damage inflicted on the Spanish economy was enormous: it exceeded 110.000.0000 guilders! Privateering didn>t stop however: on the contrary, private captains and ship-owners, especially in Zeeland (the towns of Vlissingen and Middelburg) Rotterdam and Dordrecht continued privateering.
To illustrate the profits from the kaapvaart enterprises, here are some figures:
In the period 1623-1637 the Dutch conquered 609 enemy ships, worth 81 million guilders including cargo . After deduction of all costs, equipment of the ships, payments of the sailors etc., an amount of 36 million guilders remained. Most of these profits ended up in the pockets of the shareholders and not in the WIC fund.
A good example is the conquered silverfleet by Piet Heyn in 1628. The booty was worth 11,5 million guilders, minus costs of 7 million, quite a considerable amount of money. But according to the regulation the crew was entitled to 10% and 17 month extra payment and 10% for the Stadtholder as Admiral-General. The bewindhebbers had a poor 1%, but the shareholders received 50% dividend pay. After this generous hand-out only 1.5 million remained for the Company fund. It has to be said that privateering captains and shipowners had a high status in the Republic; after their carreer was over, many of them became merchants or high authorities.
It was not unusual now and then that ships fled during a (privateering) sea-battle. Dutch captains who were found guilty of this kind of treason were often stongly punished. When the WIC ships the Maeght van Enkhuizen and the Matanca secretly sailed away during the Four-Days-Battle in January 1640, the Captains were killed by a sword which was broken before their eyes! The captain of the Graef Ernest, who abandoned the fleet during a battle fought under the command of Cornelis Jol in the West Indies in 1638, was dismissed and sent to Groningen in the Republic where he was held under arrest.
The very last kaperbrief was issued by king Lodewijk Napoleon, July 14, 1810, when the Republic was under French occupation.

Note:
*PIRACY = Pirates robbing any ship on own authority and for own account.
*PRIVATEERING= A legitimate form of piracy, authorized by a higher authority (sovereign or a government). A privateer had to be in possession of a commission-letter handed by the sovereign or government, and was bound to very strict rules. As a rule commission-letters were only issued by the state during war-time, and, it was not allowed to conquer or plunder ships of neutral states.
Through the ages, the line between piracy and privateering always has been very thin, and often overstepped (or sailed?) During times of war, governments of sailor nations highly profited from privateering: it inflicted severe losses to the enemy and -at the same time- made it possible for governments to save on building and maintenance costs needed for a regular navy. Buccaneers were an example of the thin line between piracy and privateering: the name refers to the group of pirates and privateers who operated in the Caribbean Waters. Privateers, but of another nature, were the Barbary privateers of the Mediterranean Sea: from the beginning of the 17th century they attacked and plundered ships of all Christian nations. The English word 'corsair' refers to them. Mind you, in the seventeenth century about 60 Dutch captains have been sailing on Barbary privateering ships, fighting, footwashing (captured Christians were thrown overboard) or enslaving their fellow-Christians!

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Sources:
EEN ZEGENRIJK GEWEST
Nieuw-Nederland in de zeventiende eeuw.
Jaap Jacobs
Uitgeverij Prometheus/Bert Bakker Amsterdam, 1999
ISBN 90 5333 803 9

GESCHIEDENIS VAN DE LAGE LANDEN IN JAARTALLEN
Dr. H.P.H.Jansen
Uitgev. Spectrum, Utrecht/Antwerpen, 1971
ISBN 90 274 0492 5

DE GESCHIEDENIS VAN DE W.I.C.
Henk den Heijer
Uitgeverij Walburg Pers Zutphen 1994
ISBN 90 601 1912 6

KAPERS OP DE KUST NEDERLANDSE KAAPVAART EN PIRATERIJ 1500-1800
R.B.Prud'homme van Reine
Uitgeverij ADZ, Vlissingen, 1991
ISBN 90-72838-05-X

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Charter of the Dutch WIC, 1621

List of directors/administrators of the WIC

The Isle of Tortuga. Great site about Piracy in the Caribbean

Pirates: definitions

Pirates: resources

Privateers and Pirates !!!

A Short History from a Piratical Point of View

Piracy timeline

Privateering Documents Main List

List of books on WIC and the Atlantic area

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The VOC
 
Institute for Dutch History: Shipping between the Netherlands and Asia between 1595-1795.(Site, presenting tables which give a virtually complete survey of the direct shipping between the Netherlands and Asia between 1595-1795

J.R.Bruijn, F.S. Gaastra, I Schöffer (eds),"Dutch-Asiatic shipping in the 17th and 18th centuries"
[Publication of the Instituut voor Nederlandse Geschiedenis,published 1979-1987]

Recommended

Organization of the VOC in general
VOC-Organization

The VOC: archives
Sri Lanka (Ceylon)
VOC historical sources
Maritime Lanka.Maritime archaeology & history of Sri Lanka
The Spice Route Time Chart
The Dutch in Ceylon
Index VOC-buildings (Nice pictures and descriptions!)
The Dutch Burgher Union of Ceylon
VOC archives, created in the Netherlands
Lapidarium Zeylanicum. (Introduction of Christianity in Ceylon, by the Portuguese and the Dutch)
A World of Difference. The VOC and Japan's economic policy, 1640-1715
The Dutch in Ceylon: Glimpses of their life and times
VOC Links
 
Ships
Taiwan / Formosa
VOC Shipwrecks
VOC Shipwrecks (extensive list)
 
Duyfken 1606 Replica
 
The voyage around the world of the Nassau Fleet (1623-1626)
 
 
The Ostend East-India Company (1722-1731)
   
 

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Indonesia
former Dutch East Indies

Indonesia History

History of North Sulawesi, Indonesia- Dutch Colonialism to Independence

Sejarah Indonesia.
An online timeline of Indonesian history

World History Archives. History of
the Republic of Indonesia

Network Indonesia. History of Indonesia.

Indonesia: a country study

The Dutch East Indies

Indonesia History Index

Countrystudies. Indonesia -History

Wikipedia Org. Indonesia

List of the Governors-General of the Dutch East Indies

   
 

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Art & History

The Essential Vermeer-Lover. Great site!

Walking with Vermeer (a virtual tour through Delft)

Rembrandt's Anatomy Lesson

Dutch 17th-century Art

Frans Hals: research links

Girl with a Pearl Earring
An In-Depth Study by Jonathan Janson

Dutch and Flemish art in Museums all over the world

Van Gogh's Letters, unabridged and annotated

Multimedia.Johannes Vermeer House & Delft Geography

Dutch/Flemish paintings 16-17th century

Web Gallery of Art

Frans Hals: research links

Art Cyclopedia: Dutch artists

Painting in the Low Countries

The Dutch World of Painting

Dutch and Flemish art in Museums all over the world
[CODART is a worldwide network of museum curators of Dutch and Flemish art. The CODART directory is the best guide to Dutch and Flemish art on the Internet]

 

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